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A new bill would ban the US government from using Huawei and ZTE phones
US lawmakers have long worried about the security risks posed the alleged ties between Chinese companies Huawei and ZTE and the country’s government. To that end, Texas Representative Mike Conaway introduced a bill last week called Defending U.S. Government Communications Act, which aims to ban US government agencies from using phones and equipment from the companies.
长期以来，美国议员一直担心中国企业华为和中兴通讯与北京之间存在的安全风险。为此，德克萨斯州众议员迈克康纳威 (Mike Conaway) 上周提出了一项名为 “保卫美国” 的法案。这项政府通信法案，旨在禁止美国政府机构使用这些公司的电话和设备。
Conaway’s bill would prohibit the US government from purchasing and using “telecommunications equipment and/or services,” from Huawei and ZTE. In a statement on his site, he says that technology coming from the country poses a threat to national security, and that use of this equipment “would be inviting Chinese surveillance into all aspects of our lives,” and cites US Intelligence and counterintelligence officials who say that Huawei has shared information with state leaders, and that the its business in the US is growing, representing a further security risk.
康纳威的法案将禁止美国政府购买和使用华为和中兴的 “电信设备和 / 或服务”。他在网站上发表声明称，来自中国的技术对国家安全构成了威胁，使用这种设备 “将使中国对我们生活的各个方面进行监视。” 并援引美国情报和反间谍官员的话说，华为与中国国家领导部门共享信息，其在美国的业务正在增长，意味着安全风险的进一步增加。”
The bill is another major headache for Huawei, which last week saw its partnership with AT&T abruptly collapse, prompting the company’s CEO to go off script during a CES presentation. Under the deal, the company would be able to sell its new flagship Mate 10 Pro phone in the US through AT&T. The partnership between the two companies attracted unwanted scrutiny by US lawmakers, who sent a letter with their concerns to the Federal Communications Commission in December, according to The New York Times.
这一法案是华为的另一个令人头疼的问题。上周，华为与 AT&T 的合作突然破裂，导致该公司首席执行官在 CES 展会上取消了这一计划。根据协议，该公司将能够通过 AT&T 在美国销售其新旗舰 Mate 10 Pro 手机。据《纽约时报》报道，两家公司之间的合作关系受到了美国立法者不必要的审查，他们在去年 12 月向联邦通信委员会 (Federal Communications Commission) 发出了一封信函，表达了他们的担忧。
Conaway’s bill is part of a larger trend of concerns over foreign-built software and hardware. Last summer, the heads of the six major US intelligence agencies told a Senate Intelligence Committee that they had concerns over using security products from Kaspersky Lab, while the UK’s national Cyber Security Centre issued a new guidance over the Russian-company’s products, citing concerns about potential connections to the Russian government.
康纳威的法案是对国外软件和硬件的加大关注趋势的一部分。去年夏天，美国六大情报机构的负责人告知参议院情报委员会，他们对使用卡巴斯基实验室的安全产品感到担忧，而国家网络安全中心 (NationalCyber SecurityCentre) 发布了一份针对这家俄罗斯公司产品的新指南，引发了对卡巴斯基与俄罗斯政府潜在联系的担忧。
Lawmakers have long worried about Huawei and ZTE date, and Conaway’s bill is a new chapter in that saga. In 2010, four senators contacted the FCC with concerns over the alleged ties between the companies and the Chinese government. In 2011, the two companies were the subject of a report from the House of Representative’s Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence, which recommended that the US government be prohibited from buying Huawei and ZTE products, as well as continued vigilance, investigation, and legislation to address the concerns. The US also isn’t the only country to worry about the companies: the Australian government upheld a prohibition in 2013 that barred Huawei from bidding on work on the country’s National Broadband Network. But the 2011 Congressional report doesn’t cite direct evidence that the company is compromised, instead saying that Huawei has failed to provide evidence that would “satisfy any fair and full investigation,” and Huawei has consistently denied allegations of collusion with the Chinese government.
长期以来，立法者一直担心华为和中兴，而康纳威的法案则是这一故事的新篇章。2010 年，四名参议员与联邦通信委员会（FCC）联系，对两家公司与北京之间的关系表示担忧。2011，这两家公司成为众议院情报常设特别委员会一份报告的主题，该报告建议禁止美国政府购买华为和中兴的产品，并继续保持警惕、调查和立法以解决这些问题。美国也不是唯一一个担心这些公司的国家：澳大利亚政府在 2013 维持了一项禁令，禁止华为在该国的国家宽带网络 (National Broadband Network) 上投标。但 2011 年美国国会报告并未援引直接证据证明因华为遭受了损害，而是表示华为未能提供 “能满足任何公正和全面调查的证据”，华为也一直否认与北京勾结的指控。
In their book, Cybersecurity and Cyberwar: What Everyone Needs to Know, P.W. Singer and Allan Friedman argue that there is a growing cybersecurity risk as complicated hardware supply chains harbor plenty of opportunities for foreign agents to compromise equipment. Singer tells The Verge that there is also reason for the government to be wary of using foreign-built hardware, especially long-term. “If a potential adversary is making the systems and software that you use,” he says, “you don’t just have dependency, but also potential vulnerability that can be exploited not just now, but years into the future.”
在《网络安全：输不起的互联网战争》（译注：这本书有中文版，这里用的是中译名）一书中，P.W 辛格和艾伦 · 弗里德曼认为，网络安全的风险日益增大，因为复杂的硬件供应链为外国代理商提供了大量的机会来破坏设备。辛格告诉《华尔街日报》，政府也有理由对使用外国制造的硬件保持警惕，特别是从长期来看。“如果一个潜在的对手正在制造你使用的系统和软件，” 他说，“你不仅有依赖性，而且还有潜在的弱点，不仅是现在可以利用的，而且是未来几年都可以利用的。”
While the potential for a cybersecurity concerns exists, Huawei and ZTE have long been targets for members of Congress, and this bill could be a form of political signaling to China. Conaway specifically cites President Donald Trump’s and his American First attitude, who has accused China of taking advantage of US interests, and says that the country is specifically trying to “compromise the integrity of U.S.businesses and spy on our closely held national security secrets.”
尽管存在网络安全问题的潜在可能性，但华为和中兴长期以来一直是国会议员的目标，这项法案可能是向中国发出政治信号的一种形式。康纳威特别引述了唐纳德 · 特朗普总统和他的 “美国优先” 态度，他们指责中国利用了美国的利益，并表示，中国正试图 “损害美国企业的诚信，并窥探我们严密掌握的国家安全机密”。